Using Verbs in Tenses
Auxiliary Verbs:
Be: we used auxiliary verb be in the formation of continuous tenses.
Be(Am/Is/Are)                     Was/Were                     Been
-Present Continuous: (Am/Is/Are) Ex. I am studying English grammar.
-Past Continuous: (Was/Were)      Ex. I was studying English grammar.
-Perfect Continuous: (Been)          Ex. I have been studying English grammar.
-Future Continuous: (Be)                        Ex. I will be studying English grammar.
Do: we used auxiliary verbdo to make interrogative and negative sentences in
                    present and past simple.   Do/Does                         Did                    Done
-Present Simple: (Do/Does)          Ex. I don’t study English grammar.
                                                             Do you study English grammar?
-Past Simple: (Did)                       Ex. I didn’t study English grammar.
                                                             Did you study English grammar?
Have: we used auxiliary verbhave in formation of perfect tenses.
                                                         Have/Has        Had              Had
-Present Perfect (Have/Has)Ex. I have studied English grammar.
-Present Perfect Continuous (Have/Has)Ex. I have been studying English grammar.
-Past Perfect (Had)                               Ex. I had studied English grammar.
-Past Perfect Continuous (Had)  Ex. I had been studying English grammar.
Will/Shall: we used will/shall to express future time.
(Shall is used in the first person I and We)
-Future Simple:                                   Ex. I will study English grammar.
-Future Continuous:                Ex. I will be studying English grammar.
-Future Perfect:                                   Ex. I will have studied English grammar.
-Future Perfect Continuous:       Ex. I will have been studying English grammar.
Irregular Verbs in Tenses
There are five classes in the Irregular verbs
Present Tense
Base Form (V1)
Past Tense (V2)
Past Participle(V3)
Present Participle(V-ing)
goes
go
went
gone
going

-Verb Present Tense: we used it in present simple tense for the third person ( He/She/It)
                                  Present Simple: He/She/It goes to school.
-Base Form or Infinitive(V1): we used it in the Present and Future Simple tenses.
                                 Present Simple: I go to school.
                                 Future Simple:  I will go to school.
-Past Tense (V2): we used it in Past Simple tense.
                                 Past Simple: I went to school.
-Past Participle (V3): we used it in the Perfect tenses.
                                 Present Perfect: I have gone to school.
                                 Past Perfect: I had gone to school.
-Present Participle (V-ing): we used it in the Continuous/Progressive tenses.
                                 Present Continuous: I am going to school.
                                 Past Continuous:       I was going to school
                                Present Perfect Continuous: I have been going to school.
                                Past Perfect Continuous: I had been going to school.
                                Future Continuous: I will be going to school.
                                Future Perfect Continuous: I will have been going to school.
                                                                              Formsof the Tense
Present: Infinitive(V1)
Past: Past Tense(V2)
Perfect: Past Participle(V3)
Future: Will/Shall
Continuous: be+ Present Participle (V-ing)

Forms of The Tense
Present Times: there are two tenses in the present times.
1-Present Simple: is used to talk about facts or things that are generally true and repeated actions.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+V1(Infinitive)+Objective
We study English grammar
Interrogative
Do/Does+S+V1(Infinitive)+Objective?
Do we study English grammar?
Negative
S+Do/Does+not+V1(Infinitive)+Objective
We don’t study English grammar
Using Verbs in Present Simple
- Most verbs add -sto infinitive:   work→works, sit→sits, stay→stays
- Verbs ending in consonant + ychange in -Iand add -es: cry→cries, hurry→hurries
-Verbs ending in -s, -z, -ch, -sh or x add -esto infinitive: miss→misses, watch→watches
- Exceptions: have→has, do→does, go→goes
Do
I/You/We/They (Plural Nouns)
Do+not
Don’t
Does
He/She/It (Singular Nouns)
Does+not
Doesn’t
                                                                                
2-Present Continuous: is used to talk about something that is happening at the time of speaking or present.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ (Am/Is/Are)+ V-ing+ Objective
We are study English grammar
Interrogative
(Am/Is/Are)+ S+ V-ing+ Objective?
Are we studying English grammar?
Negative
S+ (Am/Is/Are)+ not+ V-ing+ Objective
We aren’t studying English grammar
Using Verbs in Present Continuous
-Verbs that end in -edrop the -e and add –ing.
-Exception: verbs ending in double -ee, the final
                   -e is not dropped.
  Hope → hoping
 Agree → agreeing

-Verb that ending in a vowel and a consonant.
A vowel + a consonant→ double consonants.
Two vowels+ a consonant → one consonant.
-Exception: -w, -x, -yis not double, just keep
and add -ing.
  Stop → stopping
  Rain → raining
  Fix → fixing
  Play → playing
  Grow → growing

-Verbs that ending in -iechange to -y, add -ing.
  Die → dying
  Lie → lying
  Tie → tying

Am
I
Am+ not
am not
Is
He/She/It (Singular Nouns)
Is+ not
isn’t
Are
You/We/They (Plural Nouns)
Are+ not
aren’t
Non-Progressive Verbs( Stative Verbs)
Some Verbs are never or hardly ever used in progressive forms. These verbs are described or refer to states
rather than actions. They do not describe activities that are in progressive tense.
Mental State
Know             Want*         Think*              Believe        Agree
Realize           Feel*            Doubt*             Need           Understand
Suppose         Remember*  Imagine*         Recognize    Wish
Promise         Mean*           Forget*           Concern        Desire
Emotional State
Love               Hate              Fear                 Mind            Like
Dislike            Envy        Care                Appreciate   Please
Astonish         Amaze           Surprise          Prefer          Impress

Possession
Possess           Have*            Own               Belong
Senses
taste*              See*               Smell*            Feel*           Hear
Other Existing
Seem              Cost*               Be*                Owe           Consist
Exist               Look*              Weight*         Matter        Contain
Sound             Appear*           Resemble       Equal         Look like
Deserve          Measure           Fit

*Verbs with an asterisk can have both stative and progressive meaning.
 But it has difference in meaning, as in the following example:
Non-Progressive (Stative Verbs)Progressive ( Activity)
Think: I think Jackson is a kind man.                  I am thinking about this grammar.
Have:  Peter has a grammar book                        I am having a trouble.
Taste:  The food tests good                             The chef is tasting the sauce.
Smell:  These flowers smell good                       You are smelling the rose.
See:     I see what you mean.                               The doctor is seeing a patient.
Feel:    I feel we shouldn’t do it.                           I’m feeling fine.
Look:   Shelooks cold. I’ll lend her my coat.      I am looking out the window.
Appear: Heappears a perfectly normal person.   The actor is appearing on the stage.
Weight: A piano is heavy. It’s weight a lot.         The grocer is weighting bananas.
Be:         I am hungry.                                            He is being foolish.
Remember: He remembers your name.                 He is remembering the old story.
Imagine: I imagine you must be tired.                   She is imagining her plan.
Forget: They forget how much I paid for it.          My friend is forgetting something.
Mean:  ‘huge’ means ‘very big’                             It’smeaning bad result.
Past Times: there are six tenses in the past times.
1-Past Simple:is used to describe things that happened in the past or events that have been completion.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ V2+ Objective
We studied English grammar
Interrogative
Did+ S+ V1 + Objective?
Did we study English grammar?
Negative
S+ Did+ not+ V1 + Objective
We didn’t study English grammar
Using Verbs in Past Simple
Using Regular Verbs in the Past Simple
Most regular verbs: add -ed
Work → worked/ Help → helped/Start → started

Verbs ending in -e: add -d
Hope → hoped/Decide → decided
Verbs ending in one stressed vowel
+ one consonant ( except w or x):
double the consonant and add -ed
Stop → stopped/Plan → planned
Refer → referred/Regret → regretted
Verbs ending in consonant + -y:
Change y to iand add –ed
Verbs ending in vowel + -y:
 keep -y and add -ed.
Hurry → hurried/Cry → cried
Study → studied/Play → played
Note:*Verbs ending in -chaveck in the past; Ex: picnic→picnicked.
*In British English, -l is doubled in the past after a short vowel event if the vowel is not stressed;
Ex tralvel→travelled.
Was
I/He/She/Is  (Singular Nouns)
Ex. I was a student.
Were
You/We/They (Plural Nouns)
Ex. They were students.        

                     2-Past Continuous:is used to describe actions in the past that continue for some time in the past.
                      The time of the action may not be indicated.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ Was/Were+ V-ing+ Objective
We were studying English grammar
Interrogative
Was/Were+ S+ V-ing + Objective?
Were we studying English grammar?
Negative
S+ Was/Were+ not+ V-ing + Objective
We weren’t studying English grammar
Using Verbs in Past Continuous
Was
I/He/She/It (Singular Nouns)
Was+ not
wasn’t
Were
You/We/They (Plural Nouns)
Were+ not
weren’t

3-Present Perfect:to refer to actions which started in the past and which are still going on atthe time ofspeaking or which still affect the situation in the present.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ Have/Has+ V3+ Objective
We have studied English grammar
Interrogative
Have/Has+ S+ V3 + Objective?
Have we studied English grammar?
Negative
S+ Have/Has+ not+ V3 + Objective
We have studied English grammar


Using Verbs in Present Perfect
Have
I/ You/We/They (Plural Nouns)
Has+ not
hasn’t
Has
He/She/It (Singular Nouns)
Have+ not
haven’t

Past Participle (V3): spelling –edform for Past Participle (V3) in regular verbs.
Note: The difference between been (to) and gone (to)
Ex. He’s been to Angkor Wat. ( He went to Angkor Wat but he is back now)
       He’s gone to Angkor Wat. (He is at Angkor Wat now)
Note: The Present Perfect is never used with adverbs of the past time.
Ex. He has gone to Angkor Wat yesterday. (Wrong)
       He went to Angkor Wat yesterday. (Right)
4-Present Perfect Continuous:is used for an action which began at some time in the past and is going still continuing or used for an action already finished.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ Have/Has+ Been+ V-ing+ Objective
We have been studying English grammar
Interrogative
Have/Has+ S+ Been+ V-ing + Objective?
Have we been studying English grammar?
Negative
S+ Have/Has+ not+ Been+ V-ing + Objective
We haven’t been studying English grammar
Using Verbs in Present Perfect Continuous
Been+ Present Participle (V-ing)to express Perfect Continuous form.
Ex. He has been sleeping for five hours. (Now he is still sleeping)
      I have been studying English since seven o’clock. (Now I am still studying English)
5-Past Perfect: is used to refer to action or events in the past that happened before other actions in the past.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ Had + V3+ Objective
We had studied English grammar
Interrogative
Had+ S+ + V3 + Objective?
Had we studied English grammar?
Negative
S+ Had+ not+  V3 + Objective
We hadn’t studied English grammar
Using Verbs in Past Perfect
Had: is used to all persons in the Past Perfect.
Had
I/You/We/They  He/She/It
Had+not
Hadn’t

6-Past Perfect Continuous: is used for an action that began before a certain point in the past and continued up to that time.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ Had+ Been+ V-ing+ Objective
We had been studying English grammar
Interrogative
Had+ S+ Been+ V-ing + Objective?
Had we been studying English grammar?
Negative
S+ Had+ not+ Been+ V-ing + Objective
We hadn’t been studying English grammar
Future Times: there are four tenses in the future times.
1-Future Simple: is used to talk about something that we think or believe will happen in the future.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ Will/Shall + V1+ Objective
We will study English grammar
Interrogative
Will/Shall+ S+ V1 + Objective?
Will we study English grammar?
Negative
S+ Will/Shall+ not+ V1 + Objective
We won’t  study English grammar
Using Verbs in Future Simple
Will
I/You/We/They He/She/It
Will+not
Won’t
Shall
I/We
Shall+not
Shan’t

*Be+ going  to+ V1: is used to express what someone intends to do in the future, something that is being or has planned.
Ex. I am going to tell her about my new house.
*Be about to: is used to express what is going to happened in the very near future.
Ex. I am about to study computer at my school.
*Be to: to talk about official plans and arrangements.
Ex. The Prime Minister is to visit Cambodia next month.
2-Future Simple Continuous:is used to talk about actions which will be in progress at a time in the future.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ Will/Shall +Be+ V-ing+ Objective
We will be studying English grammar
Interrogative
Will/Shall+ S+Be+ V-ing + Objective?
Will we be studying English grammar?
Negative
S+ Will/Shall+ not+Be+ V-ing + Objective
We won’t be studying English grammar
Using Verbs in Future Continuous
Be+PresentParticiple(V-ing): to express Future Continuous tense.
3-Future Perfect: is used to refer to an action that you expect to have happened or that will be completed by a certain future time.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ Will/Shall + Have+ V3+ Objective
We will have studied English grammar
Interrogative
Will/Shall+ S+ Have+ V3 + Objective?
Will we have studied English grammar?
Negative
S+Will/Shall+ not+  Have+ V3 + Objective
We will not have studied English grammar
Using Verbs in Future Perfect
Will : is used with all persons ( I/You/We/They/He/She/It)
Shall: is used with the first person (I/We). But today is less common than Will.
*Remember: After Will/Shall the verbs is using is infinitive.
Ex. He will has studied English grammar. (Wrong)
      He will have studied English grammar. (Right)
4-Future Perfect Continuous:is used to refer to an actionwhich will be in progress over a period of the time that will end in the future.
Sentences
Forms
Examples
Affirmative
S+ Will/Shall + Have+Been+ V-ing+ Objective
We will have been studying English.
Interrogative
Will/Shall+ S+ Have+Been+V-ing +Objective?
Will we have been studying English?
Negative
S+ Will/Shall+ not+ Have+ V3 + Objective
We will not have been studying English.
Expressing Meaning
Ex. By the end of the month, I will have been working here for six years. (and I will continue to work here)
      I will have been teaching for twenty years next July. (and I will continue to teach here)


Appendix
Question Words
We can use Wh-questions with all tenses to add more information of answer.
Wh-questions
Example
Answer
Meaning
When
When did they come home?
Yesterday
When: is used to ask about time.
Where
Where will you go this week?
Phnom Penh
Where: is used to ask about place.
Why
Why do you come late?
Because I had a traffic jam.
Why: is used to ask about reason.
What
What is your full name?
SABONE VENTA
What: is used to ask about more detail of the subject.
Which
Which book do you want?
Which countries did you visit?
That one
Cambodia and Lao
Which: is used to ask about choosing. And sometimes ask about information of noun.
How
How do you come to school?
How long have studied English?
How often do you play soccer?
How faris it to school from here?
How much money does it cost?
How many people come here?
By bus
Five years
Every weekend
400meter
Five dollars
Twenty
How: is used to ask about manner.
How long: asks about length of time.
How often: asks about frequency.
How far: asks about distance.
How much/many: is used to ask about quantity.
Who
Who is your teacher?
Teacher Venta
Who: is used to ask about people.
Whom
Whom did you meet last night?
Whom were you talking to?
I met David
My mom
Whom: is used to ask about object of verb or preposition. (refer to people)
Whose
Whose book is this?
It’s mine
Whose: asks about possession.
   




ផ្តើដោយ: សាប៊ូ វែនតា Tel:098677677